MUSHROOM: CREATING WEALTH FROM WASTE

FIIRO has been the forerunner in the cultivation of Mushrooms in Nigeria. The project started as far back as 1988. Though people find it hard to believe that mushrooms can be cultivated in-door because people are of the opinion that mushrooms grow naturally in the wild and apart from that, eating mushrooms from the wild gives concern to the public for the fear of eating poisonous species. The advent of FIIRO in mushroom cultivation has changed the face of mushrooms in Nigeria using agro-industrial wastes. Some of the wastes FIIRO has used in the past are cotton waste, sawdust, corn cob, cassava peels, banana leaves, groundnut shell, wood shavings, cassava flour shafts, etc. FIIRO has also supplemented some of these wastes that have a low yield such as wood shavings, corn cob, cassava peels, cassava flour shaft with poultry manure, palm kernel cake, rice bran, wheat bran, etc to increase their yield which gave a positive result.

The wastes have been supportive in the cultivation of edible species of mushroom such as Pleurotus tuberregium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, etc. Spawns of these mushrooms are all available at the mushroom culture bank. These mushrooms have been grown to the commercial stage in FIIRO using different wastes from the six-geopolitical.

Presently, FIIRO has gone beyond laboratory cultivation and effort is now being geared towards the commercial cultivation of mushrooms to make them available to the public and increase people’s awareness. FIIRO is also striving to increase the protein intake of Nigerians believed to be exceptionally low, especially the low-income earners that cannot afford the expensive protein from meat, milk, and so on. The use of cotton waste in the past for its high yield compared to other agro-wastes relegated these wastes to the background but with the scarcity of cotton waste, modern technology has been developed for the use of sawdust. This is supplemented with rice bran, wheat bran, or palm kernel cake which now gives yield better than cotton waste. New species of mushrooms are being sourced every day to increase species of mushroom cultured and give Nigerians a variety of mushrooms to savour.

Training of small and medium-scale entrepreneurs has also been part of FIIRO’s effort in making sure that Nigerians cultivate the habit of eating mushrooms. The SMEs were trained in the art of mushroom cultivation making use of agro-industrial wastes.

With the pace FIIRO is going in creating awareness, training of SMEs, the future of mushrooms in Nigeria is going to be great. It will be another source of income to the country earning, creating jobs for the unemployed youth and improve the nutritional intake of Nigerians by eating mushrooms and increase the immune systems by eating mushrooms. Also, the commercial cultivation in the Institute will be a source of income apart from the sale of spawns.

In the area of bioremediation, mushrooms have been discovered to be a veritable tool in the cleaning of our environment, the use of wastes for the cultivation reduces land pollution while the mushroom mycelia also have been worked upon and discovered to be useful in the biodegradation of toxic chemicals and spilled crude oil.

The Institute has used the following wastes extensively to cultivate mushrooms: Cotton waste, sawdust, rice bran, cassava peel, yam peel, sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran corn cob, sawdust, cassava peel, yam peel, cotton waste, wheat bran, groundnut shells, rice straw, etc and have mixed the substrates to increases yields of the mushroom fruits. 

At the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIIRO) several techniques have been adapted for the cultivation of the mushroom which thrives in the temperature range of 28-36oC and relative humidity of 75-88oC.

The table below shows a summary of wastes and their mushroom yields.

MUSHROOM CULTIVATION SUBSTRATES AND YIELD

S/N

GROWING MEDIUM

MUSHROOM SPECIES

PERCENTAGE YIELD

1

Rice straw

Straw (Volvariella)

Oyster (Pleurotus)

76%

65%

2

Wheat Bran

Oyster (Pleurotus)

68%

 

3

Sawdust/Rice bran

Lentinus squarroslus

70%

4

Sawdust/Rice bran

Oyster (Pleurotus)

85%

 

5

Cotton Waste

Oyster (Pleurotus)

80%

 

6

Corncobs

Oyster (Pleurotus)

60%

7

Paper

Oyster (Pleurotus)

14.9

8

Sugarcane Bagasse

Oyster (Pleurotus)

22

9

Water Hyacinth

Oyster (Pleurotus)

15

10

Oil Palm Waste

Straw (Volvariella)

60

11

Cocoa Shell Waste

Oyster (Pleurotus)

20%

12

Banana leaves

Oyster (Pleurotus)

30%

13

Cassava peel

Oyster (Pleurotus)

27%

14

Yam peel

Oyster (Pleurotus)

-

15

Cassava peel/Soybean Chaff 

Oyster (Pleurotus)

72

 

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Auricularia Auricula-Judae, (Wood Ear or Black Wood Ear)

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Compost Mixing

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Calocybe Indica (Milky White Mushroom)

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Young Calocybe Indica (Milky White Mushroom)

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Auricularia Auricula-Judae, (Wood Ear or Black Wood Ear)

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Spawn

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Pleurotus Pulmonarius, (Indian Oyster, Phoenix Mushroom, Lung Oyster)

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Available mushrooms

FIIRO has worked on the isolation and cultivation of different species of mushrooms which include:

Pleurotus tuberregium

Pleurotus pulmonarius

Pleurotus ostreatus

Volvariella volvacea

Lentinus squarroslus

Calocybe indica

Auricularia auricula

The culture of these mushrooms can be gotten from the Biotechnology Department of the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi.

 FIIRO Spawn Production

FIIRO established a world-class spawn center where spawn of different species of mushrooms can be purchased. The center is equipped to cater to the spawn needs of mushroom farmers in Nigeria and the West African region.

AUTOMATED DRYER

AUTOMATED DRYER

Commercial crops are produced in large quantities in Nigeria, for the food industry and technical needs. These needs have increased the requirement for quality production as post-harvest losses in Nigeria are as high as 30-50%. The drying of crops is an important stage in the farming industry and also consumes a large amount of energy. Dried foods are stable under ambient conditions, easy to handle, possess extended storage life, and can easily be incorporated during food formulation and preparation. Drying is used as either a primary or secondary process for preservation.


Crops contain dry matter and water after harvestation. Water is essential for the growth of crops but excess moisture after crop maturity may result in storage related problems such as pests, insects, mould, and fungi which reduce the quality and market value of the crop. This is why the purpose of drying is to manage the temperature and moisture of the air around the crop to optimize its market value and quality.


The drying of crops can be divided into four categories:
1. Low-Temperature Drying - Uses unheated air or air heated up 8oC.
2. Medium Temperature Drying - Uses heated air up to 60oC
3. High-Temperature Drying - Uses heated air up to 82oC
4. Combination Drying - Uses both low and high temperatures to reduce the crop moisture content to an ideal storage level.


Drying involves the separation of water from crops made up of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and mineral salts. The removal of water occurs via evaporation. This is as a result of the partial pressure water vapour difference between the surface of the crop and the air. Thus, water molecules are transferred from the crops to the air. Basic drying concepts such as moisture content, dryer size & capacity, dryer selection criteria, stress cracks & breakage susceptibility, crop quality, and energy efficiency are considered before the designs of any dryer are considered.
At FIIRO we've designed an Automated Dryer for the drying of different crops. The desired drying conditions like temperature, relative humidity, time, etc. It can be preset, monitored, and controlled through any Wi-Fi-enabled device connected to the dryer. Real-time data can be analyzed, making the system suitable for research and production applications. 

GARI: A DERIVATIVE OF THE GOLDEN CROP, CASSAVA

Cassava is a tuberous edible plant of the Spurge Family that originated in tropical America. It is cultivated throughout the tropical regions worldwide for its tuberous roots from which many products can be derived. The Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, FIIRO, has developed long shelf-life products from cassava and gari is one of them as it is a good source of energy.

FIIRO starts ISO 9001 Campaign

Unpublished

ISO 9001:2015 is an international standard dedicated to Quality Management Systems (QMS). The QMS is the aggregate of all the processes, resources, assets, and cultural values that support the goal of customer satisfaction and organizational efficiency. The ISO 9001:2015 is the latest iteration replacing ISO 9001:2008 which was first published in 1987. Independent certification bodies are engaged by an organization to audit their QMS implementation against the ISO requirements
A FIIRO Steering Committee has been set up for the implementation of ISO 9001:2015 certification within a six (6) months’ timeline. The members of the steering committee were selected from every department in the institute and the DG’s office. The committee will be led by a project manager who reports to the Director-General. Three project coordinators are to coordinate the project. These will report to the Project manager. The members of the committee will report to the coordinators who are designated to be in charge of research, non – research, and the DG’s office.

MOBILE CASSAVA PROCESSING INNOVATION (MOCAPI) SOLUTION

MOCAPI unit is a mechanization project meant to upgrade production of gari at cottage level it targeted women processors in the rural areas who do not have access to improved processing methods and equipment.

The idea for a mobile cassava-processing unit as service support for women engaged in the cassava sector was born during a study tour in Oyo and Ogun Sate, Nigeria in 2017.   

ANCHOR UNIVERSITY INITIATES COLLABORATION WITH FIIRO

The Institute has recorded another milestone achievement in its collaboration effort at connective effectively to all its stakeholders. The Vice Chancellor of Anchor University Prof. J. O Afolayan in company of Prof Oladele Fatokun- the Dean Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences and the Ag. Librarian Pastor Zacchaeus B. Emmanuel paid a courtesy visit to the Institute on Tuesday, 31st July, 2018 

FIIRO RECEIVES ISO 17025:2005 CERTIFICATION FOR ITS CENTRAL LABORATORY

FIIRO has recorded another milestone in achieving its vision of becoming the foremost Centre of excellence in Science and Technology - based Research and Development for the Industrialization and Socio-economic advancement of the nation. On Thursday, 9th August, 2018, the Institute was presented ISO 17025:2005 certificate for accreditation of its central laboratory. The certificate was received by the Honorable Minister of Science and Technology, Dr. Ogbonnaya Onu. Nigerian National Accreditation Service (NiNAS) in presenting the certificate to the Hon. Minister said FIIRO is the first public sector that would receive such accreditation in Nigeria.



FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL
RESEARCH OSHODI
Address:

3, FIIRO Road, Near Cappa Bus Stop
Off Agege Motor Road, Oshodi
P.M.B 21023, Ikeja Lagos
Tel: 07085770494, 08123185766